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Programmed cell death and related topics


Ptosis= programmed death

Suicide programs are inherent at various levels of organization of living systems from organels to whole organims.


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Types of programmed death: Apoptosis (Cell death) - Autophagy (Cell death)- Necrosis (Cell death)- Autoschizis (Cell death)- Anoikis (Cell death)- Mitoptosis (organel death)- Organoptosis (organ death)- Phenoptosis (whole organims death)

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Apoptosis   Also called Programmed cell death type I. Apoptosis purifies a tissue from unwanted cells




Autophagy   Also called Programmed cell death type II


Necrosis   Also called Programmed cell death type III







"Anoikis (from a  Greek word meaning ‘homelessness" or the state of being without a home) is defined as anchorage-dependent programmed cell death, In other words, anoikis is defined as apoptosis that is induced by inadequate or inappropriate cell–matrix interactions. it is use to describe the cells' apoptotic response to the absence of cell-matrix interactions."


Reference: Anoikis mechanisms. Frisch SM, Screaton RA. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2001 Oct;13(5):555-62. Review.




Self-elimination of mitochondria. Mitoptosis purifies a cell from damaged and hence unwanted mitochondria.


Nuclear Death (PND)   Elimination of the nucleus. Occurs in lens and ciliates.  
Excitotoxicity   Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged and killed by glutamate and similar substances  



Self-elimination of organ

Reference:  Programmed death phenomena: from organelle to organism. Skulachev VP. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Apr;959:214-37. Review.





"pheno = showing or demonstrating". Phenoptosis purifies a community from unwanted individuals




A form of cell death exclusive to the eyes


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